Bridging the chasm: Education may turn Early Majority into Early Adopters

A while ago we came up with the idea to investigate the intersection between change management and artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology.

We wanted to assess independent predictors for being a so-called ‘early adopter’, inspired by Roger’s Innovation Diffusion theory.

An early adopter, coming right after the innovator, is someone who wants to take a risk without getting an immediate benefit. In our domain, this translates to a radiologists/resident with an open and proactive attitude (i.e., those who are willing to invest extra time in AI in an already full clinical schedule).

The >1,000 responses generated an extensive database with which we were able to determine independent predictors for being an ‘early adopter’ as well as for having ‘fear of replacement of AI’.

The key takeaway is that higher levels of education both strongly increase the likelihood of having an open and proactive attitude towards AI in clinical radiology, whilst decreasing the likelihood of fearing replacement due to AI. Rudimentary AI-specific knowledge had the opposite effect and was found to increase fear and diminish the odds of having a positive attitude. Other strong predictors for being an ‘early adopter’ were the male gender and professional social media use. Survey research is notoriously challenging because of the subjective nature, which is why we thoroughly corrected for confounders. The results proved to be very robust.

Since AI-specific knowledge beyond rudimentary levels increases the odds of being an ‘early adopter’ up to 17-fold, education is key when wanting to drive change and bridge the chasm. I dare say this probably holds true in domains beyond AI and radiology, too.

Interestingly, we also saw that those who had only heard of AI (i.e. having no in-depth knowledge whatsoever) are likely to be open and proactive as well, contrary to those with rudimentary knowledge. Faith in humanity restored, I’d say.

Part 1 is out now (use the link below to read the full article). Part 2, on expectations, hurdles to implementation and education, will be out soon.

Key points

  • Forty-eight percent of radiologists and residents have an open and proactive attitude towards artificial intelligence (AI), while 38% fear of replacement by AI.
  • Intermediate and advanced AI-specific knowledge levels may enhance adoption of AI in clinical practice, while rudimentary knowledge levels appear to be inhibitive.
  • AI should be incorporated in radiology training curricula to help facilitate its clinical adoption.

Article: An international survey on AI in radiology in 1,041 radiologists and radiology residents part 1: fear of replacement, knowledge, and attitude

Authors: Merel Huisman, Erik Ranschaert, William Parker, Domenico Mastrodicasa, Martin Koci, Daniel Pinto de Santos, Francesca Coppola, Sergey Morozov, Marc Zins, Cedric Bohyn, Ural Koç, Jie Wu, Satyam Veean, Dominik Fleischmann, Tim Leiner & Martin J Willemink


  • Merel Huisman

    Meander Medical Centre, Amersfoort, The Netherlands

Latest posts

Become A Member Today!

You will have access to a wide range of benefits that can help you advance your career and stay up-to-date with the latest developments in the field of radiology. These benefits include access to educational resources, networking opportunities with other professionals in the field, opportunities to participate in research projects and clinical trials, and access to the latest technologies and techniques. 

Check out our different membership options.

If you don’t find a fitting membership send us an email here.


for radiologists, radiology residents, professionals of allied sciences (including radiographers/radiological technologists, nuclear medicine physicians, medical physicists, and data scientists) & professionals of allied sciences in training residing within the boundaries of Europe

  • Reduced registration fees for ECR 1
  • Reduced fees for the European School of Radiology (ESOR) 2
  • Option to participate in the European Diploma. 3
  • Free electronic access to the journal European Radiology 
  • Content e-mails for all ESR journals4
  • Updates on offers & events through our newsletters
  • Exclusive access to the ESR feed in Juisci

€ 11 /year

Yes! That is less than €1 per month.

Free membership

for radiologists, radiology residents or professionals of allied sciences engaged in practice, teaching or research residing outside Europe as well as individual qualified professionals with an interest in radiology and medical imaging who do not fulfil individual or all requirements for any other ESR membership category & former full members who have retired from all clinical practice
  • Reduced registration fees for ECR 1
  • Option to participate in the European Diploma. 3
  • Free electronic access to the journal European Radiology
  • Content e-mails for all ESR journals 4
  • Updates on offers & events through our newsletters
  • Exclusive access to the ESR feed in Juisci

€ 0

The best things in life are free.

ESR Friends

For students, company representatives or hospital managers etc.

  • Content e-mails for all 3 ESR journals 4
  • Updates on offers & events through our newsletters

€ 0

Friendship doesn’t cost a thing.

The membership type best fitting for you will be selected automatically during the application process.



Reduced registration fees for ECR 2025:
Provided that ESR 2024 membership is activated and approved by August 31, 2024.

Not all activities included
Examination based on the ESR European Training Curriculum (radiologists or radiology residents).
European Radiology, Insights into Imaging, European Radiology Experimental.